A mezzaluna is a knife consisting of a single or double curved blade with a handle on each end. It is often used for chopping herbs or very large single blade versions are sometimes used for pizza or pesto
A pizza cutter (or pizza wheel) is a utensil that is used to cut pizzas. The use of a pizza cutter instead of a standard knife avoids the dislodging of loose toppings through the back-and-forth motion of the blade typical of a knife. Pizza cutters press their blade down vertically instead. There are two main types of pizza cutters.1. Wheel Cutter2. MezzalunaIt was invented in 1708 by Silvio Pacitti.
A peel is a shovel-like tool used by bakers to slide loaves of bread, pizzas, pastries, and other baked goods into and out of an oven. It is usually made of wood, with a flat carrying surface (like a shovel's blade) for holding the baked good and a handle extending from one side of that surface. Alternatively, the carrying surface may be made of sheet metal, which is attached to a wooden handle.
A peel's intended functions are to:
A baker's peelPrior to use, peels are often sprinkled with flour, cornmeal, or milled wheat bran, to allow baked goods to easily slide onto and off them.
- Carefully transfer delicate breads, pastries, et cetera into an oven where transferring them directly by hand could deform their delicate structure.
- Allow food to be placed further toward the back of an oven than could normally be reached by the baker.
- Keep the baker's hands out of the hottest part of an oven, or prevent the baker from burning their hands on the hot baked goods.
There are peels of many sizes, with the length of the handle suited to the depth of the oven, and the size of the carrying surface suited to the size of the food it is meant to carry (for instance, slightly larger than the circumference of a pizza). Household peels commonly have handles around 15 cm long and carrying surfaces around 35 cm square, though handles range in length from vestigial (~6 centimeters) to extensive (~1.5 meters or more), and carrying surfaces range in size from miniature (~12 centimeters square) to considerably wide (1 meter square or more).
An alternative, and related, meaning of the word "peel" is a wooden pole with a smooth cross-piece at one end, which was used in printing houses of the hand-press period (before around 1850) to raise printed sheets onto a line to dry, and to take them down again once dried. The term is also sometimes used for the blade of an oar. All three meanings derive ultimately from the Latin pala, a spade.
A masonry oven, colloquially known as a brick oven or stone oven, is anoven consisting of a baking chamber made of fireproof brick, concrete, stone, or clay. Though traditionally wood-fired, coal-fired ovens were common in the 19th century and modern masonry ovens are often fired with natural gas or even electricity. Modern masonry ovens are closely associated with artisanalbread and pizza, but in the past they were used for any cooking task involving baking.
The traditional direct-fired masonry design is often called a "Roman" or "black" oven and dates in Western culture to at least the Roman Republic. It is known as a black oven due to the fact that the smoke from the wood used as fuel sometimes collects as soot on the roof of the oven. Such ovens were in wide use throughout medieval Europe and were often built to serve entire communities (cf the banal ovens of France, which were often owned by the local government and whose operators charged a fee to oven users). Such ovens became popular in the Americas during the colonial era and are still in wide use in artisanal bakeries and pizzerias, as well as some restaurants featuring pizzas and baked dishes. Descendants include the beehive ovens of the colonial United States and the Quebec ovens based on the designs of the banal ovens of France.
In the precolumbian Americas, similar ovens were often made of clay or adobe and are sometimes referred to by the Spanish term horno(meaning "oven").
Wood-burning masonry ovens are mandated for production of true Neapolitan pizza.